Traumatic Brain Injury in Prisoners

Posted by Omnigraphics on Sep 24, 2020 3:12:09 PM

Many people in prisons and jails are living with traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related problems that complicate their management and treatment while they are incarcerated. Because most prisoners will be released, these problems will also pose challenges when they return to the community. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognizes TBI in prisons and jails as an important public-health problem.

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Protecting Yourself from Online Predators

Posted by Teen Resource Center on Sep 1, 2020 3:57:11 PM

You probably connect with people online a lot and love it. Just remember to be smart about what you share. Even with privacy settings your info and photos can wind up being seen by lots of people, including your parents/guardians, your teachers, bosses, and strangers, some of whom could be dangerous. Even information that seems harmless, such as where you went to dinner last night, could be used by a stranger to find you.

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Teen Suicide: A Global Perspective

Posted by Teen Resource Center on Sep 1, 2020 3:33:53 PM

Suicide accounts for an estimated 800,000 deaths each year, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), making it the fifth-leading cause of death worldwide. Many experts believe the true number may be higher because some deaths are unreported or misclassified due to the sensitive nature of suicide. The scope of the problem appears even larger when you consider that there are many unsuccessful suicide attempts for each completed suicide. Since every suicide has tragic, long-lasting consequences for that person's family and community, finding ways to prevent suicide is clearly an issue of global concern.

Did You Know…
According to the WHO, a person dies by suicide somewhere in the world every 40 seconds.

Suicide affects people of all nationalities, genders, and ages. It occurs in every country in the world, regardless of its level of wealth or economic development. WHO researchers found that 75 percent of global suicides occurred in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in 2012. This figure is deceiving, however, because such a large proportion of the world's population lives in LMIC. In fact, the suicide rate of 11.2 per 100,000 people in LMIC was lower than the rate of 12.7 per 100,000 people found in high-income countries. A country's location or region seems to make little difference in the prevalence of suicide. Countries from all parts of the world appear near both the top and bottom of the global ranking of all nations by suicide rate.
Men are more likely to die by suicide than women. This trend is most pronounced in high-income countries, where an average of 3.5 men committed suicide for every woman who did so in 2012. In LMIC the male-to-female ratio was much lower, at 1.6 men for every woman. In most regions of the world, suicide is most common among elderly people over the age of 70. But suicide claims many lives among younger people between the ages of 15 and 29, as well. In fact, suicide accounts for 8.5 percent of all deaths in this age group, compared to 4.1 percent of all deaths among middle-aged people between 30 and 49. This makes suicide the second-leading cause of death (after accidents) for younger people worldwide.

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Can Alzheimer's Disease Be Prevented?

Posted by Health360 Team on Aug 31, 2020 5:02:50 PM

Will doing crossword puzzles prevent memory loss as we age? Does exercise delay or prevent Alzheimer disease (AD)? Will adding fish oil to a diet help keep our brains healthy as we age? National Institutes of Health (NIH) convened a conference to answer these and other questions. The conclusion? Research so far has offered good leads about preventing Alzheimer disease and age-related cognitive decline. Still, more research is needed before we can be sure what's effective.

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Topics: Blog

Prostate Cancer: What You Need To Know

Posted by Health360 Team on Aug 31, 2020 4:32:33 PM

The prostate is a part of the male reproductive system, which includes the penis, prostate, and testicles. The prostate is located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the bladder). It produces fluid that makes up a part of semen.

As a man ages, the prostate tends to increase in size. This can cause the urethra to narrow and decrease urine flow. This is called benign prostatic hyperplasia, and it is not the same as prostate cancer. Men may also have other prostate changes that are not cancer.

What Is Prostate Cancer?

Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the prostate, it is called prostate cancer. Not including skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American men.

What Is the Prostate?

The prostate is a part of the male reproductive system, which includes the penis, prostate, and testicles. The prostate is located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the bladder). It produces fluid that makes up a part of semen.

As a man ages, the prostate tends to increase in size. This can cause the urethra to narrow and decrease urine flow. This is called benign prostatic hyperplasia, and it is not the same as prostate cancer.

What Are the Risk Factors?

All men are at risk for prostate cancer. Out of every 100 American men, about 13 will get prostate cancer during their lifetime, and about 2 to 3 men will die from prostate cancer.

The most common risk factor is age. The older a man is, the greater the chance of getting prostate cancer.

Some men are at increased risk for prostate cancer. You are at increased risk of getting or dying from prostate cancer if you are African-American or have a family history of prostate cancer.

African-American Men

  • Are more likely to get prostate cancer than other men.
  • Are more than twice as likely to die from prostate cancer than white men.
  • Get prostate cancer at a younger age, tend to have more advanced disease when it is found, and tend to have a more severe type of prostate cancer than other men.

Family History

  • Men who have a father, son, or brother who had prostate cancer are at increased risk for getting prostate cancer.
  • Men with three or more first-degree relatives (father, son, or brother), or two close relatives on the same side of the family who have had prostate cancer may have a type of prostate cancer caused by genetic changes that are inherited.

Men who are not African-American and do not have a family history of prostate cancer are at average risk.

What Are the Symptoms of Prostate Cancer?

Different people have different symptoms for prostate cancer. Some men do not have symptoms at all.

Some symptoms of prostate cancer are:

  • Difficulty starting urination
  • Weak or interrupted flow of urine
  • Frequent urination, especially at night
  • Difficulty emptying the bladder completely
  • Pain or burning during urination
  • Blood in the urine or semen
  • Pain in the back, hips, or pelvis that doesn't go away
  • Painful ejaculation

If you have any symptoms that worry you, be sure to see your doctor right away. Keep in mind that these symptoms may be caused by conditions other than prostate cancer.

What Screening Tests Are There for Prostate Cancer?

Cancer screening means looking for cancer before it causes symptoms. The goal of screening for prostate cancer is to find cancers that may be at high risk for spreading if not treated, and to find them early before they spread.

If you are thinking about being screened, learn about the possible benefits and harms of screening, diagnosis, and treatment, and talk to your doctor about your personal risk factors.

There is no standard test to screen for prostate cancer. Two tests that are commonly used to screen for prostate cancer are described below.

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

A blood test called a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test measures the level of PSA in the blood. PSA is a substance made by the prostate. The levels of PSA in the blood can be higher in men who have prostate cancer. The PSA level may also be elevated in other conditions that affect the prostate.
As a rule, the higher the PSA level in the blood, the more likely a prostate problem is present. But many factors, such as age and race, can affect PSA levels. Some prostate glands make more PSA than others.

PSA levels also can be affected by:

  • Certain medical procedures
  • Certain medications
  • An enlarged prostate
  • A prostate infection

Because many factors can affect PSA levels, your doctor is the best person to interpret your PSA test results. If the PSA test is abnormal, your doctor may recommend a biopsy to find out if you have prostate cancer.

Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)

Digital rectal examination (DRE) is when a health care provider inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into a man's rectum to feel the prostate for anything abnormal, such as cancer. In 2018, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force stated that it does not recommend DRE as a screening test because of lack evidence on the benefits.

Should I Get Screened for Prostate Cancer?

In 2018, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) made the following recommendations about prostate cancer screening:

  • Men who are 55 to 69 years old should make individual decisions about being screened for prostate cancer with a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test.
  • Before making a decision, men should talk to their doctor about the benefits and harms of screening for prostate cancer, including the benefits and harms of other tests and treatment.
  • Men who are 70 years old and older should not be screened for prostate cancer routinely.

This recommendation applies to men who:

  • Are at average risk for prostate cancer
  • Are at increased risk for prostate cancer
  • Do not have symptoms of prostate cancer
  • Have never been diagnosed with prostate cancer

Other organizations, like the American Urological Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American College of Physicians may have other recommendations.

Talk to Your Doctor

If you are thinking about being screened, you and your doctor should consider:

  • If you have a family history of prostate cancer
  • If you are African-American
  • If you have other medical conditions that may make it difficult for you to be treated for prostate cancer if it is found, or that may make you less likely to benefit from screening
  • How you value the potential benefits and harms of screening, diagnosis, and treatment

What Are the Benefits and Harms of Screening?

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is an organization made up of doctors and disease experts who look at research on the best way to prevent diseases and make recommendations on how doctors can help patients avoid diseases or find them early.

In 2018, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) made the following recommendations about prostate cancer screening:

  • Men who are 55 to 69 years old should make individual decisions about being screened for prostate cancer with a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test
  • Before making a decision, men should talk to their doctor about the benefits and harms of screening for prostate cancer, including the benefits and harms of other tests and treatment
  • Men who are 70 years old and older should not be screened for prostate cancer routinely

The goal of screening for prostate cancer is to find cancers that may be at high risk for spreading if not treated, and to find them early before they spread. However, most prostate cancers grow slowly or not at all.

Possible Benefits of Screening

The benefits of screening for prostate cancer may include:

  • Finding prostate cancers that may be at high risk of spreading, so that they can be treated before they spread. This may lower the chance of death from prostate cancer in some men.
  • Some men prefer to know if they have prostate cancer.

Possible Harms

The possible harms of screening for prostate cancer include harms from screening, diagnosis, and treatment.

Possible Harm from Screening

False positive test results: This occurs when a man has an abnormal PSA test but does not have prostate cancer. False positive test results often lead to unnecessary tests, like a biopsy of the prostate. They may cause men to worry about their health. Older men are more likely to have false positive test results.

Possible Harms from Diagnosis

Screening finds prostate cancer in some men who would never have had symptoms from their cancer in their lifetime. Treatment of men who would not have had symptoms or died from prostate cancer can cause them to have complications from treatment, but not benefit from treatment. This is called overdiagnosis.

Prostate cancer is diagnosed with a prostate biopsy. A biopsy is when a small piece of tissue is removed from the prostate and looked at under a microscope to see if there are cancer cells. Older men are more likely to have a complication after a prostate biopsy.

A prostate biopsy can cause:

  • Pain
  • Blood in the semen or ejaculate
  • Infection

Possible Harms from Treatment

The most common treatments for prostate cancer are surgery to remove the prostate and radiation therapy.

The most common harms from prostate cancer treatment are:

  • Urinary incontinence (accidental leakage of urine). About 1 out of every 5 men who have surgery to remove the prostate loses bladder control.
  • Erectile dysfunction (impotence). About 2 out of every 3 men who have surgery to remove the prostate become impotent, and about half of men who receive radiation therapy become impotent.
  • Bowel problems, including fecal incontinence (accidental leakage of bowel movements) and urgency (sudden and uncontrollable urge to have a bowel movement). About 1 out of every 6 men who has radiation therapy has bowel problems.

How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed?

A biopsy is a procedure that can be used to diagnose prostate cancer. A biopsy is when a small piece of tissue is removed from the prostate and looked at under a microscope to see if there are cancer cells.

A Gleason score is determined when the biopsy is looked at under the microscope. If there is a cancer, the score indicates how likely it is to spread. The score ranges from 2 to 10. The lower the score, the less likely it is that the cancer will spread.

A biopsy is the main tool for diagnosing prostate cancer, but a doctor can use other tools to help make sure the biopsy is made in the right place. For example, doctors may use a transrectal ultrasound, when a probe the size of a finger is inserted into the rectum and high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off the prostate to create a picture of the prostate called a sonogram. Doctors also may use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to guide the biopsy.

Staging

If prostate cancer is diagnosed, other tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the prostate or to other parts of the body. This process is called staging. Whether the cancer is only in the prostate, or has spread outside the prostate, determines your stage of prostate cancer. The stage of prostate cancer tells doctors what kind of treatment you need.

How Is Prostate Cancer Treated?

Different types of treatment are available for prostate cancer. You and your doctor will decide which treatment is right for you. Some common treatments are:

  • Active surveillance. Closely monitoring the prostate cancer by PSA and DRE tests regularly, and treating the cancer only if it grows or causes symptoms.
  • Surgery. A prostatectomy is an operation where doctors remove the prostate. Radical prostatectomy removes the prostate as well as the surrounding tissue.
  • Radiation therapy. Using high-energy rays (similar to X-rays) to kill the cancer. There are two types of radiation therapy:
    • External radiation therapy. A machine outside the body directs radiation at the cancer cells.
    • Internal radiation therapy (brachytherapy). Radioactive seeds or pellets are surgically placed into or near the cancer to destroy the cancer cells.

Hormone therapy. Blocks cancer cells from getting the hormones they need to grow.

Other therapies used in the treatment of prostate cancer that are still under investigation include:

  • Cryotherapy. Placing a special probe inside or near the prostate cancer to freeze and kill the cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy. Using special drugs to shrink or kill the cancer. The drugs can be pills you take or medicines given through your veins, or, sometimes, both.
  • Biological therapy. Works with your body's immune system to help it fight cancer or to control side effects from other cancer treatments. Side effects are how your body reacts to drugs or other treatments.
  • High-intensity focused ultrasound. This therapy directs high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) at the cancer to kill cancer cells.

Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Complementary and alternative medicine are medicines and health practices that are not standard cancer treatments. Complementary medicine is used in addition to standard treatments, and alternative medicine is used instead of standard treatments. Meditation, yoga, and supplements like vitamins and herbs are some examples.

Many kinds of complementary and alternative medicine have not been tested scientifically and may not be safe. Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits before you start any kind of complementary or alternative medicine.

Which Treatment Is Right for Me?

Choosing the treatment that is right for you may be hard. Talk to your cancer doctor about the treatment options available for your type and stage of cancer. Your doctor can explain the risks and benefits of each treatment and their side effects. Side effects are how your body reacts to drugs or other treatments.

Sometimes people get an opinion from more than one cancer doctor. This is called a "second opinion." Getting a second opinion may help you choose the treatment that is right for you.

 

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Topics: Blog

5 Out of 5 Stars for the Teen Resource Center

Posted by Teen Resource Center on Aug 19, 2020 2:59:55 PM

When it comes to educational resources, not all are created equal. The Teen Resource Center was designed specifically for today's teens. Using real-world scenarios to answer real-world questions, this inclusive platform has become a top resource for teens as well as a fantastic resource for teachers, parents, and communities.

But enough of us talking...see what our users are saying about us: 

"Teen Resource Center . . . is a stand-out resource for teenagers looking for accurate, current, and reliable information. The variety and extensiveness of relevant and contemporary information for today's young adults and the manner in which it is presented makes [this] . . . an excellent choice for all physical and virtual libraries serving young adults."

Angela Wojtecki, Nordonia Hills City Schools, OH

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Psoriasis 101: Everything You Need to Know

Posted by Health360 Team on Aug 4, 2020 3:38:09 PM

What Is Psoriasis?

Psoriasis is a skin disease that causes red, scaly skin that may feel painful, swollen or hot.
If your child have psoriasis, they are more likely to get some other conditions, including:

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August is Breastfeeding Awareness Month

Posted by Health360 Team on Aug 4, 2020 3:24:55 PM

When you breastfeed, you give your baby a healthy start that lasts a lifetime. Breastmilk is the perfect food for your baby. Breastfeeding saves lives, money, and time.

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Biologics: New Treatments for Juvenile Arthritis

Posted by Health360 Team on Jul 7, 2020 11:49:35 AM

Juvenile arthritis is one of the most common chronic illnesses affecting children. The most common symptoms include joint pain, inflammation (swelling), tenderness and stiffness. One early sign may be limping in the morning.

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Athletes and Skin Cancer Risk

Posted by Health360 Team on Jul 6, 2020 1:51:55 PM

As summer rages on in the Northern Hemisphere, many athletes are trading their indoor gym for outdoor workouts. The option to train outdoors is a welcome relief to those who have been in lockdown due to the Covid-19 pandemic, but as we move outdoors, there is one big factor to keep in mind. 

What Is Skin Cancer?

Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types of skin cancer-basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas-are highly curable, but can be disfiguring and costly. Melanoma, the third most common skin cancer, is more dangerous and causes the most deaths. The majority of these three types of skin cancer are caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light.

Ultraviolet (UV) Light

Ultraviolet (UV) rays are an invisible kind of radiation that comes from the sun, tanning beds, and sunlamps. UV rays can penetrate and change skin cells.

The three types of UV rays are ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), and ultraviolet C (UVC):

  • Most UV rays that reach the surface of the earth are UVA rays. UVA rays can reach deep into human skin and damage connective tissue and the skin's DNA.
  • Most UVB rays are absorbed by the ozone layer, so fewer of them reach the earth's surface compared to UVA rays. UVB rays, which help produce vitamin D in the skin, don't reach as far into the skin as UVA rays, but they can still cause sunburn and damage DNA.
  • UVC rays are very dangerous, but they are absorbed completely by the ozone layer and do not reach the earth's surface.

In addition to causing sunburn, too much exposure to UV rays can change skin texture, cause the skin to age prematurely, and can lead to skin cancer. UV rays also have been linked to eye conditions such as cataracts.

UV Index

The National Weather Service (NWS) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the UV Index (www.epa.gov/enviro/uv-index-search) to forecast the risk of overexposure to UV rays. It lets you know how much caution you should take when working, playing, or exercising outdoors.

The UV Index predicts exposure levels on a 1 to 15 scale; higher levels indicate a higher risk of overexposure. Calculated on a next-day basis for dozens of cities across the United States, the UV Index takes into account clouds and other local conditions that affect the amount of UV rays reaching the ground.

What Are the Risk Factors for Skin Cancer?

Anyone can get skin cancer, but people with certain characteristics are at greater risk-

  • A lighter natural skin color
  • Skin that burns, freckles, reddens easily, or becomes painful in the sun
  • Blue or green eyes
  • Blond or red hair
  • Certain types and a large number of moles
  • A family history of skin cancer
  • A personal history of skin cancer

Tanning and Burning

Regardless of whether you have any of the risk factors listed above, reducing your exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays can help keep your skin healthy and lower your chances of getting skin cancer in the future. Most people get at least some UV exposure from the sun when they spend time outdoors. Making sun protection an everyday habit will help you to enjoy the outdoors safely, avoid getting a sunburn, and lower your skin cancer risk.

Indoor tanning (using a tanning bed, booth, sunbed, or sunlamp to get tan) exposes users to high levels of UV radiation for the purpose of getting a tan. When UV rays reach the skin's inner layer, the skin makes more melanin. Melanin is the pigment that colors the skin. It moves toward the outer layers of the skin and becomes visible as a tan.

A tan does not indicate good health. A tan is your skin's response to injury, because skin cells signal that they have been hurt by UV rays by producing more pigment. Any change in skin color after UV exposure (whether it is a tan or a burn) is a sign of injury, not health. Over time, too much exposure to UV rays can cause skin cancers including melanoma (the deadliest type of skin cancer), basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. UV exposure can also cause cataracts and cancers of the eye (ocular melanoma). Every time you tan, you increase your risk of getting skin cancer.

What Are the Symptoms of Skin Cancer?

A change in your skin is the most common sign of skin cancer. This could be a new growth, a sore that doesn't heal, or a change in a mole. Not all skin cancers look the same.

A simple way to remember the signs of melanoma is to remember the A-B-C-D-Es of melanoma:

  • "A" stands for asymmetrical. Does the mole or spot have an irregular shape with two parts that look very different?
  • "B" stands for border. Is the border irregular or jagged?
  • "C" is for color. Is the color uneven?
  • "D" is for diameter. Is the mole or spot larger than the size of a pea?
  • "E" is for evolving. Has the mole or spot changed during the past few weeks or months?

Talk to your doctor if you notice changes in your skin such as a new growth, a sore that doesn't heal, a change in an old growth, or any of the A-B-C-D-Es of melanoma.

What Can I Do to Reduce My Risk of Skin Cancer?

Protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation is important all year round, not just during the summer or at the beach. UV rays from the sun can reach you on cloudy and hazy days, as well as bright and sunny days. UV rays also reflect off of surfaces like water, cement, sand, and snow. Indoor tanning (using a tanning bed, booth, or sunlamp to get tan) exposes users to UV radiation.

The hours between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. Daylight Saving Time (9 a.m. to 3 p.m. standard time) are the most hazardous for UV exposure outdoors in the continental United States. UV rays from sunlight are the greatest during the late spring and early summer in North America.

Few easy options for protection from UV radiation:

  • Stay in the shade, especially during midday hours.
  • Wear clothing that covers your arms and legs.
  • Wear a hat with a wide brim to shade your face, head, ears, and neck.
  • Wear sunglasses that wrap around and block both UVA and UVB rays.
  • Use sunscreen with sun protection factor (SPF) 15 or higher, and both UVA and UVB protection.
  • Avoid indoor tanning.

How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun?

Just a few serious sunburns can increase your child's risk of skin cancer later in life. Kids don't have to be at the pool, beach, or on vacation to get too much sun. Their skin needs protection from the sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays whenever they're outdoors.

  • Seek shade. UV rays are strongest and most harmful during midday, so it's best to plan indoor activities then. If this is not possible, seek shade under a tree, an umbrella, or a pop-up tent. Use these options to prevent sunburn, not to seek relief after it's happened.
  • Cover up. When possible, long-sleeved shirts and long pants and skirts can provide protection from UV rays. Clothes made from tightly woven fabric offer the best protection. A wet T-shirt offers much less UV protection than a dry one, and darker colors may offer more protection than lighter colors. Some clothing certified under international standards comes with information on its ultraviolet protection factor.
  • Get a hat. Hats that shade the face, scalp, ears, and neck are easy to use and give great protection. Baseball caps are popular among kids, but they don't protect their ears and neck. If your child chooses a cap, be sure to protect exposed areas with sunscreen.
  • Wear sunglasses. They protect your child's eyes from UV rays, which can lead to cataracts later in life. Look for sunglasses that wrap around and block as close to 100 percent of both UVA and UVB rays as possible.
  • Apply sunscreen. Use sunscreen with at least SPF 15 and UVA and UVB protection every time your child goes outside. For the best protection, apply sunscreen generously 30 minutes before going outdoors. Don't forget to protect ears, noses, lips, and the tops of feet.

Take sunscreen with you to reapply during the day, especially after your child swims or exercises. This applies to waterproof and water-resistant products as well. Follow the directions on the package for using a sunscreen product on babies less than 6 months old. All products do not have the same ingredients; if you or your child's skin reacts badly to one product, try another one or call a doctor. Your baby's best defense against sunburn is avoiding the sun or staying in the shade. Keep in mind, sunscreen is not meant to allow kids to spend more time in the sun than they would otherwise. Try combining sunscreen with other options to prevent UV damage.

Too Much Sun Hurts

Turning pink? Unprotected skin can be damaged by the sun's UV rays in as little as 15 minutes. Yet it can take up to 12 hours for skin to show the full effect of sun exposure. So, if your child's skin looks "a little pink" today, it may be burned tomorrow morning. To prevent further burning, get your child out of the sun.

Tan? There's no other way to say it-tanned skin is damaged skin. Any change in the color of your child's skin after time outside-whether sunburn or suntan-indicates damage from UV rays.

Cool and cloudy? Children still need protection. UV rays, not the temperature, do the damage. Clouds do not block UV rays, they filter them-and sometimes only slightly.

Oops! Kids often get sunburned when they are outdoors unprotected for longer than expected. Remember to plan ahead, and keep sun protection handy-in your car, bag, or child's backpack.


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Topics: Fitness, Outdoor, Blog